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Tuesday, March 24, 2009


Communication for Marketing and Selling

Effective communication about your product, services and ideas is an important key to boost the image of the company, the brand, sales and overall profitability. It is of two types:
  • Mass communication or communication using mass media
  • Personal communication with prospective customers

Here, in this write-up, we are going to focus only on mass media communication.

Mass Communication

Marketers can use one or more of following mass communication systems:

  • Advertising
  • Sales promotion
  • Events
  • Publicity

Here, in this write up, we will focus only on “advertising”. Other systems of mass communication are covered on separate pages.


Marketers need to decide about five factors for effective advertising:

  • Advertising objective(s)
  • Advertising budget
  • Advertising Campaign
  • Advertising Media
  • Advertising effectiveness evaluation

Advertising objective(s)

  • Goal or objective of advertising should be specific and quantifiable in terms of quantum of positive impact in the market on a time line.
  • Objective of advertising can be to:
    - Inform the buyers about the features and advantages/benefits of your products, services and ideas
    - Create conviction by persuading prospective customers as to why and how your products, services and ideas are better than those of competitors
    - Remind frequently about your offerings
    - Confirm or reinforce as to how the decisions of buyers in buying your offerings is correct by showing satisfied customers

Advertising budget

  • Advertising budget is an expense. It is expressed in terms of percentage or ratio of the sales.
  • More budget is required for new product introduction, for products where there are already too many competing products, for products needing frequent reminders to the customers.
  • Less budget is required for established products where the company has already achieved substantial market share and also where competition is less.

Advertising Campaign

  • It mainly deals with what message the marketer wants to send to the market about the products, services and ideas.
  • The impact of the message depends on how the advertisement expresses it.
  • The process consists of
    - Message generation
    - Creative development
    - Execution
  • In the ad campaign, social and legal aspects of advertising should always be considered.

Advertising Media

  • The choice of the media and number of exposures of advertising depend on the desired reach, frequency and impact.
  • The major media are: television, print media, radio, films and Internet.
  • Within these, there is a wide choice of media: newspapers, magazines, yellow pages, television, radio, Internet, outdoor (bill boards, moving vehicles, walls of buildings, public places like cinema theaters etc), direct mailers, brochures etc. Each medium has its advantages and limitations.
  • Decisions also need to be made on media timings i.e. scheduling of the advertisement(s) on the chosen media.
  • Marketers may choose the ads to appear evenly throughout or concentrated ads only during some specific periods, on and off advertising or a combination of these.

Advertising effectiveness evaluation

  • It involves pre-testing (before the ad campaign) and post-testing (after the ad campaign).
  • Two major criteria are checked for effectiveness of advertising:
    - Its communication impact (how much is the increase in the awareness of product?)
    - Its sales impact (how much is the increase in sales attributable to adverting?)
  • The holistic approach is to find out the share of advertising expenditure by the company on its product (as compared to total expenditures on all products of that type in the market) to achieving the share of voice, share of customers’ mind and heart for the company’s product and ultimately, share of market for the company’s product.

For More Guidance, Assistance, Training and Consultation


Also refer: (Prodcons Group), (Training Programs by Prodcons Group), (Productivity Consultants)

Other Topics of Interest

All Management Topics (General Management, Marketing and Sales, Service, Operations/Manufacturing, Quality, Maintenance, Human Resources, Finance and Accounts, Information Technology, Life Management)

The topics are listed in alphabetic order:

(Home Pages for All the Management Topics) and
(Building Leadership and Management)
(Alphabetic List of All Management Topics)
(Home Page for Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar)
(5S Housekeeping)
(Activity Based Costing- ABC)
(Anger Management)
(Assessment Centers)
(A to Z of Management Systems)
(A to Z of Quality Techniques)
(Balanced Scorecard)
(Basic Statistics)
(Behavioral Safety)
(Body Language or Non-verbal Communication)
(Books- Best Management Books)
(Business Ethics and Ethics in Management) (Business Plan)
(Business Process Reengineering- BPR)
(Career Planning within Organizations)
(Case Method)
(Case Studies in Management)
(CEO Roles, Qualities and Competencies)
(Change Management)
(Competencies- Life Management)
(Competency Matrix)
(Conflict Management)
(Corporate Governance)
(Cost Management)
(Cost of Quality- COQ)
(Counseling at Workplace)
(Creativity and Innovation)
(Critical Thinking skills)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette and Manners)
(Customer Orientation)
(Customer Relationship management- CRM)
(Daily Management)
(Decision Making)
(Design for Manufacture)
(Dining Etiquette and Table Manners)
(Discipline at Work)
(Dream Exotic)
(Effectiveness and Efficiency)
(Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Efficiency Techniques: Work study: Motion and Time Study)
(Efficient Work Methods or Practices)
(Email Etiquette)
(Emotional Intelligence)
(Enterprise Resource Planning- ERP)
(Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneur)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Exit Interview)
(Financial Ratios and Financial Ratio Analysis)
(Financial Services)
(Functions of Management)
(Gemba Kaizen)
(Genuine Professional)
(Global Mindset)
(Goal/Target Setting)
(Group Discussion)
(Group Dynamics)
(How to Be a Good Boss)
(How to Get Promoted)
(How to save Money)
(HR Dynamics)
(HR Strategies and Functions)
(Human Capital Architecture)
(Human Relations)
(Human Resource Planning)
(Human Software- HSoftware)
(Internal Motivation or Self Motivation)
(Interpersonal Relations)
(Interview Skills)
(Interview Preparation for Job Seekers)
(Interview Questions)
(Just in Time Management- JIT)
(Knowledge Management)
(Lead Time Management)
(Lean Enterprise)
(Learning Organization)
(Life Management: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life Management: I Am Liberated)
(Life Positions and OKness)
(Life Skills)
(Management Anecdotes)
(Management Book- Best Books)
(Management Information System- MIS)
(Managing/conducting Meetings)
(Management Notes- Free and Authentic)
(Marginal Utility)
(Marketing Management Overview)
(Marketing Management Tasks)
(Marketing Orientation)
(Market Research)
(Market Segmentation)
(Musings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on every topic on the earth)
(Negotiation Skills)
(Negotiation Tactics)
(Objection Handling)
(Organization Development- OD)
(Organizational Culture)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Ownership on Job)
(Paradigm and Paradigm Shift)
(Performance Management and Appraisal)
(Positive Strokes)
(Presentation Skills)
(Problem Solving)
(Profit Improvement)
(Project Management)
(Public Speaking)
(Quality Circles History)
(Quality Circles)
(Quality Function Deployment- QFD and House of Quality)
(Quality Gurus)
(Recession Management)
(Recession and Opportunities)
(Recruitment and Selection)
(Research Methodology)
(Safety and Health Management)
(Sales/Selling Process)
(Sales Promotion)
(Self Motivation or Internal Motivation)
(Self Development)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Articles on Management)
(Six Sigma)
(Six Thinking Hats)
(Soft Skills)
(Spiritual Quotient/Intelligence)
(Statistics- Basic)
(Strategic Management)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Success in Life or Success)
(Supply Chain Management)
(Supply and Demand)
(Talent Management)
(Team Building)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Three Sixty Degrees Appraisal System)
(Time Management)
(Total Productive Maintenance- TPM)
(Total Quality Management- TQM)
(Training and Development)
(Trainers’ Qualities)
(Transaction Analysis- TA)
(TRIZ- Inventive Problem Solving)
(Value Engineering/Analysis)
(Winners and Losers)
(Work Study: Method Study and Work Measurement)
(Work Methods or Practices: Efficient)
(World Class Manufacturing)
(Writings of Shyam Bhatawdekar on Management)
(Written Communication)
(Zero Based Budgeting)

Counseling: General and Psychological
(Anger Management)
(Children’s Behavior Problems)
(Cholesterol Control)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Counseling: Psychological)
(Cross Cultural Etiquette)
(Executive Etiquette and Manners)
(Family Counseling)
(Health: Homeopathy)
(LifeManagement: Competencies)
(Life Management: Effectiveness Management: HSoftware)
(Life management: I Am Liberated)
(Marriage Counseling)
(Ownership on Job)
(Parental Responsibilities)
(Qualities of Spouse)
(Quit Smoking)
(Self Development)
(Stress Management)
(Stress Management)
(Swine Flu and Its Prevention)
(Telephone Etiquette)
(Winners and Losers)

About All the Products
(Home Page for All Products)
(Greeting Cards)
(Mobile Phones)

Home Tips
(Home Page for All Home Tips)
(Entertainment: Movies)
(Oscar Award Movies)
(Entertainment: Recommended Hindi Movies)
(Entertainment- Hindi Movies of Your Choice)
(Plagiarized, Copied or Inspired Hindi Movies)
(Health: Homeopathy)
(Housekeeping at Home)
(How to Save Money) or
(Jewelry Design)
(Recipes: Easy to Cook)
(Recipes: Exotic)
(Stories for Children)
(Travel and Sightseeing- India)
(Travel and Sightseeing- World)
(World Heritage Sites)

General Knowledge and Out of Box Ideas
(General Knowledge- GK)
(General Knowledge- Top 5 of Everything)
(General Knowledge- Top 10 of Everything)
(Out of Box Ideas)
(Shyam Bhatawdekar’s Knols)
(Running Commentary on the Run)